In addition to the television commercials, they created one

In addition to the television commercials, they created one

In addition to the television commercials, they created one of the most

memorable print campaigns in history. Each ad featured a black-and-white

portrait of an iconic historical figure with just the Apple logo and the words

 

“Think Different” in the corner. Making it particularly engaging was that

the faces were not captioned. Some of them—Einstein, Gandhi, Lennon,

Dylan, Picasso, Edison, Chaplin, King—were easy to identify. But others

 

caused people to pause, puzzle, and maybe ask a friend to put a name to

the face: Martha Graham, Ansel Adams, Richard Feynman,

Maria Callas, Frank Lloyd Wright, James Watson, Amelia Earhart.

 

Most were Jobs’s personal heroes. They tended to be creative people who

had taken risks, defied failure, and bet their career on doing things in a

different way. A photography buff, he became involved in making sure they

 

had the perfect iconic portraits. “This is not the right picture of Gandhi,” he

erupted to Clow at one point. Clow explained that the famous Margaret

Bourke-White photograph of Gandhi at the spinning wheel was owned by

 

Time-Life Pictures and was not available for commercial use. So Jobs called

Norman Pearlstine, the editor in chief of Time Inc., and badgered him into

making an exception. He called Eunice Shriver to convince her family to

 

release a picture that he loved, of her brother Bobby Kennedy touring

Appalachia, and he talked to Jim Henson’s children personally

to get the right shot of the late Muppeteer.

 

He likewise called Yoko Ono for a picture of her late husband, John Lennon.

She sent him one, but it was not Jobs’s favorite. “Before it ran, I was in New

York, and I went to this small Japanese restaurant that I love, and let her

 

know I would be there,” he recalled. When he arrived, she came over to his

table. “This is a better one,” she said, handing him an envelope. “I thought

I would see you, so I had this with me.” It was the classic photo of her and

John in bed together, holding flowers, and it was the one that

 

Apple ended up using. “

I can see why John

fell in love with her,”

Jobs recalled.

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Pippin looked out from the shelter of Gandalf’s cloak.

Pippin looked out from the shelter of Gandalf’s cloak.

Pippin looked out from the shelter of Gandalf’s cloak.

He wondered if he was awake or still sleeping, still in the swift-moving dream in which he had been wrapped so long since the great ride began. The dark world was rushing by and the wind sang loudly in his ears. He could see nothing but the wheeling stars,

and away to his right vast shadows against the sky where the mountains of the South marched past. Sleepily he tried to reckon the times and stages of their journey, but his memory was drowsy and uncertain.

There had been the first ride at terrible speed without a halt, and then in the dawn he had seen a pale gleam of gold, and they had come to the silent town and the great empty house on the hill. And hardly had they reached its shelter when the winged shadow had passed over once again, and men wilted with fear. But Gandalf had spoken soft words to him, and he had slept in a corner, tired but uneasy, dimly aware of comings and goings and of men talking and Gandalf giving orders. And then again riding, riding in the night. This was the second, no, the third night since he had looked in the Stone. And with that hideous memory he woke fully, and shivered, and the noise of the wind became filled with menacing voices.

A light kindled in the sky, a blaze of yellow fire behind dark barriers Pippin cowered back, afraid for a moment, wondering into what dreadful country Gandalf was bearing him. He rubbed his eyes, and then he saw that it was the moon rising above the eastern shadows, now almost at the full. So the night was not yet old and for hours the dark journey would go on. He stirred and spoke.

‘Where are we, Gandalf?’ he asked.

‘In the realm of Gondor,’ the wizard answered. ‘The land of Anórien is still passing by.’

There was a silence again for a while. Then, ‘What is that?’ CRIed Pippin suddenly, clutching at Gandalf’s cloak. ‘Look!

Fire, red fire!

Are there dragons in this land?

Look, there is another!’

For answer Gandalf CRIed aloud to his horse. ‘On, Shadowfax!

We must hasten. Time is short. See!

The beacons of Gondor are alight, calling for aid. War is kindled. See, there is the fire on Amon D?n, and flame on Eilenach; and there they go speeding west: Nardol, Erelas, Min-Rimmon, Calenhad, and the Halifirien on the borders of Rohan.’

But Shadowfax paused in his stride, slowing to a walk, and then he lifted up his head and neighed. And out of the darkness the answering neigh of other horses came; and presently the thudding of hoofs was heard, and three riders swept up and passed like flying ghosts in the moon and vanished into the West. Then Shadowfax gathered himself together and sprang away, and the night flowed over him like a roaring wind.

Pippin became drowsy again and paid little attention to Gandalf telling him of the customs of Gondor, and how the Lord of the City had beacons built on the tops of outlying hills along both borders of the great range, and maintained posts at these points where fresh horses were always in readiness to bear his errand-riders to Rohan in the North,

or to Belfalas in the South.

‘It is long since the beacons of the North were lit,’ he said; ‘

and in the ancient days of Gondor they were not needed,

for they had the Seven Stones.’ Pippin stirred uneasily.

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One day the Emperor was riding toward the hunting

One day the Emperor was riding toward the hunting

One day the Emperor was riding toward the hunting grounds and noticed his newly found uncle respectfully standing by the roadside.

“I should like to see my uncle display his hunting skill,” said the Emperor.

  Liu Bei mounted his steed at once. Just then a hare started from its form. Liu Bei shot and hit it with the first arrow.

  the Emperor, much struck by this display, rode away over a slope. Suddenly a deer broke out of the thicket. He shot three arrows at it but all missed.

  “You try,” said the Emperor turning to Cao Cao.

  “Lend me Your Majesty’s bow,” Cao Cao replied.

  Taking the inlaid bow and the golden-tipped arrows, Cao Cao pulled the bow and hit the deer in the shoulder at the first shot. It fell in the grass and could not run.

  Now the crowd of officers seeing the golden-barbed arrow sticking in the wound concluded at once that the shot was the Emperor’s, so they rushed up and shouted “Wan shui! O King! Live forever!”

  Cao Cao rode out pushing past the Emperor and acknowledged the congratulations.

  they all turned pale. Guan Yu, who was behind Liu Bei, was especially angry. The silkworm eyebrows stood up fiercely, and the red phoenix eyes glared as, sword in hand, he rode hastily forth to cut down the audacious Prime Minister for his impertinence.

  However, Liu Bei hastily waved him back and shot at him a meaning glance so that Guan Yu stopped and made no further move.

  Liu Bei bowing toward Cao Cao said, “Most sincere felicitations! A truly supernatural shot, such as few have achieved!”

“It is only the enormous good fortune of the Son of Heaven!” said Cao Cao with a smile.

then he turned his steed and felicitated the Emperor. But he did not return the bow; he hung it over his own shoulder instead.

the hunt finished with banqueting;

and when the entertainments were over,

they returned to the capital,

all glad of some repose after the expedition.

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One Sunday morning Jobs brought his father to see the factory.

One Sunday morning Jobs brought his father to see the factory.

One Sunday morning Jobs brought his father to see the factory. Paul Jobs had always been fastidious

about making sure that his craftsmanship was exacting and his tools in order, and his son was proud to

show that he could do the same. Coleman came along to give the tour. “Steve was, like, beaming,” she recalled.

 

“He was so proud to show his father this creation.” Jobs explained how everything worked, and his father seemed

truly admiring. “He kept looking at his father, who touched everything

and loved how clean and perfect everything looked.”

 

for example, that the Macintosh group could decide not to use Apple’s marketing team and instead create

one of its own.) No one else was in favor, but Jobs kept trying to ram it through. “People were looking

to me to take control, to get him to sit down and shut up, but I didn’t,” Sculley recalled. As the meeting

broke up, he heard someone whisper, “Why doesn’t Sculley shut him up?”

 

As chairman of the company, Jobs went onstage first to start the shareholders’ meeting. He

did so with his own form of an invocation. “I’d like to open the meeting,” he said, “with a

twenty-year-old poem by Dylan—that’s Bob Dylan.” He broke into a little smile, then looked

down to read from the second verse of “The Times They Are a-Changin’.” His voice was high-pitched

as he raced through the ten lines, ending with “For the loser now / Will be later to win /

For the times they are a-changin’.” That song was the anthem that kept the multimillionaire board

chairman in touch with his counterculture self-image. He had a bootleg copy of his favorite version,

which was from the live concert Dylan performed, with Joan Baez, on Halloween 1964

at Lincoln Center’s Philharmonic Hall.

Sculley came onstage to report on the company’s earnings, and the audience started to become restless

as he droned on. Finally, he ended with a personal note. “The most important thing that has happened

to me in the last nine months at Apple has been a chance to develop a friendship with

 

Steve Jobs,” he said.

“For me, the rapport

we have developed

means an awful lot.”

www.shb419.com

Jobs kept a tight rein on the hiring process. The goal was

Jobs kept a tight rein on the hiring process. The goal was

Jobs kept a tight rein on the hiring process. The goal was to get people who were creative,

wickedly smart, and slightly rebellious. The software team would make applicants play Defender,

Smith’s favorite video game. Jobs would ask his usual offbeat questions to see how well the

 

applicant could think in unexpected situations. One day he, Hertzfeld, and Smith interviewed a

candidate for software manager who, it became clear as soon as he walked in the room, was too

uptight and conventional to manage the wizards in the fishbowl. Jobs began to toy with him

 

mercilessly. “How old were you when you lost your virginity?” he asked.

“I guess I’m not the right guy,” the poor man said as he got up to leave.

 

so that the Macintosh case could not be opened with a regular screwdriver. “We’re going

to design this thing so nobody but Apple employees can get inside this box,” he told Cash.

Jobs also decided to eliminate the cursor arrow keys on the Macintosh keyboard. The only

way to move the cursor was to use the mouse. It was a way of forcing old-fashioned users

to adapt to point-and-click navigation, even if they didn’t want to. Unlike other product

developers, Jobs did not believe the customer was always right; if they wanted to resist

using a mouse, they were wrong.

There was one other advantage, he believed, to eliminating the cursor keys: It forced

outside software developers to write programs specially for the Mac operating system,

rather than merely writing generic software that could be ported to a variety of computers.

That made for the type of tight vertical integration

 

For all of his obnoxious behavior, Jobs also had the ability to instill in his team an esprit de corps.

After tearing people down, he would find ways to lift them up and make them feel that being part

of the Macintosh project was an amazing mission. Every six months he would take

most of his team on a two-day retreat at a nearby resort.

between application

software,operating

systems, and hardware

devices that Jobs liked.

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On Sunday evenings Jobs and Friedland would

On Sunday evenings Jobs and Friedland would

On Sunday evenings Jobs and Friedland would go to the Hare Krishna temple on the western edge of Portland, often with Kottke and Holmes in tow. They would dance and sing songs at the top of their lungs. “We would work ourselves into an ecstatic

frenzy,” Holmes recalled. “Robert would go insane and dance like crazy. Steve was more subdued, as if he was embarrassed to let loose.” Then they would be treated to paper plates piled high with vegetarian food.

Friedland had stewardship of a 220-acre apple farm, about forty miles southwest of Portland, that was owned by an eccentric millionaire uncle from Switzerland named Marcel Müller. After Friedland became involved with Eastern spirituality, he turned it

into a commune called the All One Farm, and Jobs would spend weekends there with Kottke, Holmes, and like-minded seekers of enlightenment. The farm had a main house, a large barn, and a garden shed, where Kottke and Holmes slept. Jobs took on the task of pruning the Gravenstein apple trees. “Steve ran the apple

orchard,” said Friedland. “We were in the organic cider business. Steve’s job was to lead a crew of freaks to prune the orchard and whip it back into shape.”

Monks and disciples from the Hare Krishna temple would come and prepare vegetarian feasts redolent of cumin, coriander, and turmeric. “Steve would be starving when he arrived, and he would stuff himself,” Holmes recalled. “Then he

would go and purge. For years I thought he was bulimic. It was very upsetting, because we had gone to all that trouble of creating these feasts, and he couldn’t hold it down.”

Jobs was also beginning to have a little trouble stomaching Friedland’s cult leader style. “Perhaps he saw a little bit too much of Robert in himself,” said Kottke.

Although the commune was supposed to be a refuge from materialism, Friedland began operating it more as a business; his followers were told to chop and sell firewood, make apple presses and wood stoves, and engage in other commercial

endeavors for which they were not paid. One night Jobs slept under the table in the kitchen and was amused to notice that people kept coming in and stealing each other’s food from the refrigerator. Communal economics were not for him. “It started to get very materialistic,” Jobs recalled. “Everybody got the idea they were

working very hard for

Robert’s farm, and one

by one they started to leave.

I got pretty sick of it.”

shk419.com

working prototype, just a crude model. Jobs thought it was great

working prototype, just a crude model. Jobs thought it was great

working prototype, just a crude model. Jobs thought it was great, but Belleville was appalled. There was no way, he thought, that Alps could have it ready for the Mac within a year.

The final stop was the Sony factory, located in a drab suburb of Tokyo. To Jobs, it looked messy and inelegant. A lot of the work was done by hand. He hated it. Back at the hotel, Belleville argued for going with the Sony disk drive. It was ready to use. Jobs disagreed. He decided that they would work with Alps to produce their own drive, and he ordered Belleville to cease all work with Sony.

 

typewriter?” it asked. “If so, you might like to come to a gathering of people with like-minded interests.”

Allen Baum spotted the flyer on the HP bulletin board and called Wozniak, who agreed to go with him. “That night turned out to be one of the most important nights of my life,” Wozniak recalled. About thirty other people showed up, spilling out of

French’s open garage door, and they took turns describing their interests. Wozniak, who later admitted to being extremely nervous, said he liked “video games, pay movies for hotels, scientific calculator design, and TV terminal design,” according to

the minutes prepared by Moore. There was a demonstration of the new Altair, but more important to Wozniak was seeing the specification sheet for a microprocessor.

As he thought about the microprocessor—a chip that had an entire central processing unit on it—he had an insight. He had been designing a terminal, with a keyboard and monitor, that would connect to a distant minicomputer. Using a

microprocessor, he could put some of the capacity of the minicomputer inside the terminal itself, so it could become a small stand-alone computer on a desktop. It was an enduring idea:

keyboard, screen, and computer all in one integrated personal package. “This whole vision of a personal computer just popped into my head,” he said. “That night, I started to

sketch out on paper

what would later

become known

as the Apple I.”

shf419.com

Apple. It was a smart choice. The word instantly signaled

Apple. It was a smart choice. The word instantly signaled

Apple. It was a smart choice. The word instantly signaled friendliness and simplicity. It managed to be both slightly off-beat and as normal as a slice of pie. There was a whiff of counterculture, back-to-nature earthiness to it, yet nothing could be more

American. And the two words together—Apple Computer—provided an amusing disjuncture. “It doesn’t quite make sense,” said Mike Markkula, who soon thereafter became the first chairman of the new company. “So it forces your brain to dwell on it.

Apple and computers, that doesn’t go together! So it helped us grow brand awareness.”

Wozniak was not yet ready to commit full-time. He was an HP company man at heart, or so he thought, and he wanted to keep his day job there. Jobs realized he

needed an ally to help corral Wozniak and adjudicate if there was a disagreement. So he enlisted his friend Ron Wayne, the middle-aged engineer at Atari who had once started a slot machine company.

Wayne knew that it would not be easy to make Wozniak quit HP, nor was it necessary right away. Instead the key was to convince him that his computer designs would be owned by the Apple partnership. “Woz had a parental attitude toward the

circuits he developed, and he wanted to be able to use them in other applications or let HP use them,” Wayne said. “Jobs and I realized that these circuits would be the core of Apple. We spent two hours in a roundtable discussion at my apartment, and I

was able to get Woz to accept this.” His argument was that a great engineer would be remembered only if he teamed with a great marketer, and this required him to

commit his designs to the partnership. Jobs was so impressed and grateful that he offered Wayne a 10% stake in the new partnership, turning him into a tie-breaker if Jobs and Wozniak disagreed over an issue.

“They were very different, but they made a powerful team,” said Wayne. Jobs at times seemed to be driven by demons, while Woz seemed a na?f who was toyed with by angels. Jobs had a bravado that helped him get things done, occasionally by

manipulating people. He could be charismatic, even mesmerizing, but also cold and brutal. Wozniak, in contrast, was shy and socially awkward, which made him seem childishly sweet. “Woz is very bright in some areas, but he’s almost like a savant,

since he was so stunted when it came to dealing with people he didn’t know,” said Jobs. “We were a good pair.” It helped that Jobs was awed by Wozniak’s engineering wizardry, and Wozniak was awed by Jobs’s business drive. “I never

wanted to deal with people and step on toes, but Steve could call up people he didn’t know and make them do things,” Wozniak recalled. “He could be rough on people he didn’t think were smart, but he never treated me rudely, even in later years

when maybe I

couldn’t answer

a question as

well as he wanted.”

sh419cc.com

The chip industry gave the region a new name when Don Hoefler

The chip industry gave the region a new name when Don Hoefler

The chip industry gave the region a new name when Don Hoefler, a columnist for the weekly trade paper Electronic News, began a series in January 1971 entitled “Silicon Valley USA.” The forty-mile Santa Clara Valley, which stretches from South

San Francisco through Palo Alto to San Jose, has as its commercial backbone El Camino Real, the royal road that once connected California’s twenty-one mission churches and is now a bustling avenue that connects companies and startups

accounting for a third of the venture capital investment in the United States each year. “Growing up, I got inspired by the history of the place,” Jobs said. “That made me want to be a part of it.”

Like most kids, he became infused with the passions of the grown-ups around him. “Most of the dads in the neighborhood did really neat stuff, like photovoltaics and batteries and radar,” Jobs recalled. “I grew up in awe of that stuff and asking people

about it.” The most important of these neighbors, Larry Lang, lived seven doors away. “He was my model of what an HP engineer was supposed to be: a big ham radio operator, hard-core electronics guy,” Jobs recalled. “He would bring me stuff to

play with.” As we walked up to Lang’s old house, Jobs pointed to the driveway. “He took a carbon microphone and a battery and a speaker, and he put it on this driveway. He had me talk into the carbon mike and it amplified out of the speaker.”

Jobs had been taught by his father that microphones always required an electronic amplifier. “So I raced home, and I told my dad that he was wrong.”

“No, it needs an amplifier,” his father assured him. When Steve protested otherwise, his father said he was crazy. “It can’t work without an amplifier. There’s some trick.”

“I kept saying no to my dad,

telling him he had to see it, and finally

he actually walked down with me and saw it.

And he said, ‘Well I’ll be a bat out of hell.’”

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“The Hsüeh family have plenty of money, so that if your Worship

“The Hsüeh family have plenty of money, so that if your Worship

“The Hsüeh family have plenty of money, so that if your Worship adjudicates that they should pay five hundred,

they can afford it, or one thousand will also be within their means; and this sum can be handed to the Feng family to meet the outlay of burning incense and burial expenses. The Feng family are, besides, people of not much consequence,

and (the fuss made by them) being simply for money, they too will, when they have got the cash in hand,

have nothing more to say. But may it please your worship to consider carefully this plan and see what you think of it?”

“It isn’t a safe course! It isn’t a safe course!” Yü-ts’un observed as he smiled. “Let me further think and deliberate; and possibly by succeeding in suppressing public criticism, the matter might also be settled.”

These two closed their consultation by a fixed determination, and the next day, when he sat in judgment, he marked off a whole company of the plaintiffs as well as of the accused,

as were mentioned by name, and had them brought before him. Yü-ts’un examined them with additional minuteness, and discovered in point of fact, that the inmates of the Feng family were extremely few,

that they merely relied upon this charge with the idea of obtaining some compensation for joss-sticks and burials; and that the Hsüeh family,

presuming on their prestige and confident of patronage, had been obstinate in the refusal to make any mutual concession,

with the result that confusion had supervened, and that no decision had been arrived at.

Following readily the bent of his feelings, Yü-ts’un disregarded the laws,

and adjudicated this suit in a random way;

and as the Feng family came in for a considerable sum,

with which to meet the expense for incense and the funeral, they had, after all,

not very much to say (in the way of objections.)

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